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Matallana ofrece dinero a Mercedes para que se vaya. Irgendwann muss es gefunkt haben und am Nur noch 7 auf Lager mehr ist unterwegs.

Tuesday 2 June Thursday 4 June Friday 5 June Saturday 6 June Sunday 7 June Monday 8 June Tuesday 9 June Monday 15 June Tuesday 16 June Wednesday 17 June Friday 19 June Saturday 20 June Sunday 21 June Monday 22 June Tuesday 23 June Wednesday 24 June Thursday 25 June Friday 26 June Saturday 27 June Sunday 28 June Monday 29 June Tuesday 30 June Wednesday 1 July Thursday 2 July Friday 3 July Saturday 4 July Sunday 5 July Monday 6 July Tuesday 7 July Wednesday 8 July Thursday 9 July Friday 10 July Saturday 11 July Sunday 12 July Monday 13 July Tuesday 14 July Wednesday 15 July Thursday 16 July Friday 17 July Saturday 18 July Sunday 19 July Monday 20 July Tuesday 21 July Wednesday 22 July Thursday 23 July Friday 24 July Saturday 25 July Sunday 26 July Monday 27 July Tuesday 28 July Wednesday 29 July Thursday 30 July Friday 31 July Saturday 1 August Sunday 2 August Monday 3 August Tuesday 4 August Wednesday 5 August Thursday 6 August Friday 7 August Saturday 8 August Sunday 9 August Monday 10 August Tuesday 11 August Wednesday 12 August Thursday 13 August Friday 14 August Saturday 15 August Sunday 16 August Monday 17 August See also: Gender reform in Esperanto.

See also: Zamenhof-Esperanto object. Constructed languages portal Language portal. Listen to this article. This audio file was created from a revision of this article dated , and does not reflect subsequent edits.

Audio help More spoken articles. Libera Folio. February 13, Retrieved February 13, Retrieved October 6, Glottolog 3.

Retrieved July 21, Global Britannica. Concise Encyclopedia of the Original Literature of Esperanto, — The Guardian.

Retrieved May 16, It has thousands of speakers — even native speakers — and that's a major accomplishment as compared to the or so other languages that have no speakers.

In: "Kiel la esperantistoj povas denove avangardi? International Language. Language Problems and Language Planning. John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Archived PDF from the original on July 21, Retrieved January 14, Pasporta Servo. Archived from the original on November 15, Retrieved January 6, Universala Esperanto Asocio.

Archived from the original on August 5, Accessed 4 October Google Translate Blog. Retrieved August 14, Retrieved May 29, Retrieved May 28, Retrieved April 15, Accessed 15 September Esperanto' International Language".

Facsimile of the title page of the First Book in English, January 25, Archived from the original on June 22, Retrieved December 5, Under Four Flags for France , , p.

Archived from the original on September 24, Retrieved February 24, En la Internacia Anarkiisma Kongreso en Amsterdamo faris rezolucion pri la afero de internacia lingvo, kaj venis dum la postaj jaroj similaj kongresaj rezolucioj.

December 5, Archived from the original on November 25, Die gefährliche Sprache. Gerlingen: Bleicher.

John Benjamins. Archived from the original PDF on December 22, Retrieved July 2, Harlow, The Esperanto Book, chapter 7". Retrieved September 29, Die Verfolgung der Esperantisten unter Hitler und Stalin.

Bleicher: Gerlingen, , p. Dangerous Language — Esperanto under Hitler and Stalin. Retrieved August 8, Republic of Molossia. Archived from the original on July 6, Retrieved August 4, Esperanto is the second language of the Republic of Molossia.

Archived from the original on February 11, June 2, Archived from the original on December 9, Based on the number of textbooks sold and membership In April The Modern Language Journal.

The Linguistic and Sociological Obstacles". In Ian Richmond ed. Kongresaj paroladoj. Jekaterinburg Ruslanda Esperantisto.

De Gruyter Mouton. Eine Einführung" [International Planned Languages. An Introduction]. Sammlung Akademie-Verlag.

Akademio de Esperanto. Vienna: Pro Esperanto , La lingvo volas eleganti, ne elefanti. Editions L'Harmattan. Retrieved April 6, Plena analiza gramatiko de Esperanto.

Universala Esperanto-Asocio. April 17, Archived from the original on May 29, October 27, Archived from the original on October 27, Archived from the original on October 21, Archived from the original on April 18, Stanford News.

Archived from the original on March 10, Bureau of Publications of Teachers College, Also in the works by Frank, Lobin, Geisler, and Meder.

Archived from the original PDF on July 9, Clayton, Australia: Monash University. Archived from the original on December 4, Routledge Encyclopedia of Language Teaching and Learning.

Esperanto Sen Mitoj "Esperanto without Myths". Second edition. Antwerp: Flandra Esperanto-Ligo, Archived from the original on January 9, Retrieved October 7, A mother tongue spoken mainly by fathers.

Xinhua News Agency. Archived from the original on December 8, Fremont, California: Esperanto Fremont. Archived from the original on January 11, Sed homoj kun homoj: Universalaj Kongresoj de Esperanto — Rotterdam: UEA, Rotterdam: Universala Esperanto-Asocio , Lord of the World ed.

Retrieved August 17, The Penguin Group. Edition published in by Penguin Classics. Translated by M. The Esperanto Movement.

Walter de Gruyter. Libera Folio in Esperanto. September 5, Retrieved July 1, Institut für Kybernetik. The New York Times.

February 16, Retrieved October 22, Retrieved October 19, Boston Globe. The concept is that eventually every moderately educated person Speech in Washington.

La Ondo de Esperanto in Esperanto. Kaliningrad, Russia. Archived from the original on May 30, Flags of the World. Archived from the original on August 31, Retrieved September 15, Oxford: Oneworld Publications.

Model Editions Partnership. Archived from the original on October 11, Retrieved June 6, Payvand News. March 25, Retrieved May 22, University of Kansas Libraries.

Archived from the original PDF on September 23, Retrieved August 26, Archived from the original on December 22, The Friend.

The Captive Conscience p. Esperanto speaking Christadelphians in Tsarist Russia. Archived from the original on June 25, Retrieved September 13, Por-Esperanta Mormonaro.

Donald J. Archived from the original on February 2, Retrieved February 22, New Yorker. Tim Morley August 13, Emily van Someren.

Ludovikologia dokumentaro I Tokyo: Ludovikito, Fundamento de Esperanto. Esperanto Lessons. Including the alphabet, adjectives, nouns, plural, gender, numbers, phrases, grammar, vocabulary, verbs, exam, audio, and translation.

Auld, William. Rotterdam: Universala Esperanto-Asocio, Butler, Montagu C. Step by Step in Esperanto.

DeSoto, Clinton Everson, Michael. Evertype, Forster, Peter G. The Hague: Mouton Publishers, Garvia, Roberto.

University of Pennsylvania Press, Gledhill, Christopher. Lincom Europa, Harlow, Don. The Esperanto Book. Self-published on the web — Okrent, Arika.

In the Land of Invented Languages. Wells, John. Lingvistikaj aspektoj de Esperanto "Linguistic aspects of Esperanto". Zamenhof, Ludovic Lazarus, Dr.

Geoghegan; HTML online version Patterson, Robert; Huff, Stanley M. Esperanto at Wikipedia's sister projects. Constructed languages. Portal List of constructed languages List of language creators.

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A member of the People's Party PP , she served as President of the Community of Madrid between and , as President of the Senate between and becoming the first female politician to have held the post and as Minister of Education and Culture Esperanza Rising.

She lives on her family's ranch, El Rancho de la Rosas, with her mother, father, and grandmother Abuelita.

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Albums of the latest and loved, and the ones to look out for discover By okspud1 14 Feb pm. Saturday 11 April Sunday 12 April Monday 13 April Tuesday 14 April Wednesday 15 April Friday 17 April Saturday 18 April Sunday 19 April Monday 20 April Tuesday 21 April Wednesday 22 April Thursday 23 April Friday 24 April Saturday 25 April Sunday 26 April Monday 27 April Tuesday 28 April Wednesday 29 April Thursday 30 April Friday 1 May Saturday 2 May Sunday 3 May Monday 4 May Tuesday 5 May Wednesday 6 May Thursday 7 May Friday 8 May Saturday 9 May Sunday 10 May Monday 11 May Tuesday 12 May Wednesday 13 May Thursday 14 May Friday 15 May Saturday 16 May Sunday 17 May Monday 18 May Tuesday 19 May Wednesday 20 May Thursday 21 May Later that year, French Esperantists organized with his participation the first World Esperanto Congress , an ongoing annual conference, in Boulogne-sur-Mer , France.

The first congress ratified the Declaration of Boulogne , which established several foundational premises for the Esperanto movement; one of its pronouncements is that Fundamento de Esperanto is the only obligatory authority over the language; another is that the Esperanto movement is exclusively a linguistic movement and that no further meaning can ever be ascribed to it.

Since , the congress has been held in a different country every year, with the exceptions of the years during the World Wars.

In , a group of young Esperanto speakers led by the Swiss Hector Hodler established the Universal Esperanto Association in order to provide a central organization for the global Esperanto community.

Esperanto grew throughout the 20th century, both as a language and as a linguistic community. Despite speakers facing persecution in regimes such as Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union under Stalin , [12] Esperanto speakers continued to establish organizations and publish periodicals tailored to specific regions and interests.

In , the United Nations granted official support to Esperanto as an international auxiliary language in the Montevideo Resolution.

The development of Esperanto has continued unabated into the 21st century. The advent of the Internet has had a significant impact on the language, as learning it has become increasingly accessible on platforms such as Duolingo , and as speakers have increasingly networked on platforms such as Amikumu.

According to the database Ethnologue published by the Summer Institute of Linguistics , up to two million people worldwide, to varying degrees, speak Esperanto, [5] [20] including about 1, to 2, native speakers who learned Esperanto from birth.

Already in , the "lernu. About 50, lernu. With over , articles, Esperanto Wikipedia Vikipedio is the 32nd-largest Wikipedia, as measured by the number of articles, [25] and is the largest Wikipedia in a constructed language.

On February 22, , Google Translate added Esperanto as its 64th language. On May 28, , the language learning platform Duolingo launched a free Esperanto course for English speakers.

On July 20, , Duolingo changed from recording users cumulatively; it now reports only the number of "active learners" i.

A fourth Esperanto course, taught in French, began its beta-testing phase in July , [37] and a fifth course, taught in Mandarin Chinese, is in development.

Esperanto is now one of 36 courses that Duolingo teaches through English, one of ten courses taught through Spanish, one of six courses taught through Portuguese, and one of six courses taught through French.

Esperanto was created in the late s and early s by L. According to Zamenhof, he created the language to reduce the "time and labour we spend in learning foreign tongues" and to foster harmony between people from different countries: "Were there but an international language, all translations would be made into it alone In such a town a sensitive nature feels more acutely than elsewhere the misery caused by language division and sees at every step that the diversity of languages is the first, or at least the most influential, basis for the separation of the human family into groups of enemies.

I was brought up as an idealist; I was taught that all people were brothers, while outside in the street at every step I felt that there were no people, only Russians, Poles, Germans, Jews and so on.

This was always a great torment to my infant mind, although many people may smile at such an 'anguish for the world' in a child.

Since at that time I thought that 'grown-ups' were omnipotent, so I often said to myself that when I grew up I would certainly destroy this evil.

Zamenhof lived on Dzika Street, No. Brother Afrum was so impressed with that idea that he learned Esperanto in a very short time at home from a little book.

He then bought many dozens of them and gave them out to relatives, friends, just anyone he could, to support that magnificent idea for he felt that this would be a common bond to promote relationships with fellow men in the world.

A group of people had organized and sent letters to the government asking to change the name of the street where Dr. Zamenhof lived for many years when he invented Esperanto, from Dzika to Zamenhofa.

They were told that a petition with a large amount of signatures would be needed. That took time so they organized demonstrations carrying large posters encouraging people to learn the universal language and to sign the petitions About the same time, in the middle of the block was marching a huge demonstration of people holding posters reading "Learn Esperanto", "Support the Universal language", "Esperanto the language of hope and expectation", "Esperanto the bond for international communication" and so on, and many "Sign the petitions".

I will never forget that rich-poor, sad-glad parade and among all these people stood two fiery red tramway cars waiting on their opposite lanes and also a few doroszkas with their horses squeezed in between.

Such a sight it was. Later a few blocks were changed from Dzika Street to Dr. Zamenhofa Street and a nice monument was erected there with his name and his invention inscribed on it, to honor his memory.

About his goals Zamenhof wrote that he wants mankind to "learn and use", "en masse", "the proposed language as a living one". After some ten years of development, which Zamenhof spent translating literature into Esperanto as well as writing original prose and verse, the first book of Esperanto grammar was published in Warsaw on July 26, The number of speakers grew rapidly over the next few decades, at first primarily in the Russian Empire and Central Europe, then in other parts of Europe, the Americas, China, and Japan.

In the early years, speakers of Esperanto kept in contact primarily through correspondence and periodicals, but in the first World Congress of Esperanto speakers was held in Boulogne-sur-Mer , France.

Since then world congresses have been held in different countries every year, except during the two World Wars. Since the Second World War, they have been attended by an average of more than 2, people and up to 6, people.

Zamenhof's name for the language was simply Internacia Lingvo "International Language". The autonomous territory of Neutral Moresnet , between what is today Belgium and Germany, had a sizable proportion of Esperanto-speakers among its small and multi-ethnic population.

There was a proposal to make Esperanto its official language. However, neither Belgium nor Prussia now within Germany had ever surrendered its original claim to it.

Around , Germany in particular was taking a more aggressive stance towards the territory and was accused of sabotage and of obstructing the administrative process in order to force the issue.

It was the First World War, however, that was the catalyst that brought about the end of neutrality. On August 4, , Germany invaded Belgium, leaving Moresnet at first "an oasis in a desert of destruction".

Hanotaux opposed all recognition of Esperanto at the League, from the first resolution on December 18, and subsequently through all efforts during the next three years.

However, two years later, the League recommended that its member states include Esperanto in their educational curricula. The French government retaliated by banning all instruction in Esperanto in France's schools and universities.

Anarchism as a political movement was very supportive during this time of anationalism as well as of the Esperanto language. Esperanto attracted the suspicion of many states.

The situation was especially pronounced in Nazi Germany , Francoist Spain up until the s, and in the Soviet Union under Stalin , from to In Nazi Germany, there was a motivation to forbid Esperanto because Zamenhof was Jewish, and due to the internationalist nature of Esperanto, which was perceived as "Bolshevist".

In his work, Mein Kampf , Adolf Hitler specifically mentioned Esperanto as an example of a language that could be used by an international Jewish conspiracy once they achieved world domination.

Esperantists in German concentration camps did, however, teach Esperanto to fellow prisoners, telling guards they were teaching Italian, the language of one of Germany's Axis allies.

In Imperial Japan , the left wing of the Japanese Esperanto movement was forbidden, but its leaders were careful enough not to give the impression to the government that the Esperantists were socialist revolutionaries, which proved a successful strategy.

After the October Revolution of , Esperanto was given a measure of government support by the new workers' states in the former Russian Empire and later by the Soviet Union government, with the Soviet Esperanto Association being established as an officially recognized organization.

Quite often the accusation was: "You are an active member of an international spy organisation which hides itself under the name of 'Association of Soviet Esperantists' on the territory of the Soviet Union.

Fascist Italy allowed the use of Esperanto, finding its phonology similar to that of Italian and publishing some tourist material in the language.

During and after the Spanish Civil War , Francoist Spain suppressed anarchists , socialists and Catalan nationalists for many years, among whom the use of Esperanto was extensive, [53] but in the s the Esperanto movement was again tolerated.

Esperanto has not been a secondary official language of any recognized country, but it entered the education system of several countries such as Hungary [55] and China.

There were plans at the beginning of the 20th century to establish Neutral Moresnet , in central-western Europe, as the world's first Esperanto state.

In addition, the self-proclaimed artificial island micronation of Rose Island , near Italy in the Adriatic Sea, used Esperanto as its official language in , and another micronation, the extant Republic of Molossia , near Dayton, Nevada, uses Esperanto as an official language alongside English.

The Chinese government has used Esperanto since for daily news on china. The Vatican Radio has an Esperanto version of its website.

The US Army has published military phrase books in Esperanto, [60] to be used from the s until the s in war games by mock enemy forces.

A field reference manual, FM Feb. Esperanto is the working language of several non-profit international organizations such as the Sennacieca Asocio Tutmonda , a left-wing cultural association which had members in over 85 countries in The largest of these, the Universal Esperanto Association , has an official consultative relationship with the United Nations and UNESCO , which recognized Esperanto as a medium for international understanding in Esperanto is also the first language of teaching and administration of the International Academy of Sciences San Marino.

The League of Nations made attempts to promote teaching Esperanto in member countries, but the resolutions were defeated mainly by French delegates who did not feel there was a need for it.

In the summer of , the American Radio Relay League adopted Esperanto as its official international auxiliary language [67] , and hoped that the language would be used by radio amateurs in international communications, but its actual use for radio communications was negligible.

Zamenhof had the goal to "enable the learner to make direct use of his knowledge with persons of any nationality, whether the language be universally accepted or not", [19] as he wrote in The language is currently spoken by people living in more than countries; there are about two thousand Esperanto native speakers and probably some hundred thousand people use the language regularly.

On the other hand, one common criticism made is that Esperanto has failed to live up to the hopes of its creator, who dreamed of it becoming a universal second language.

In his speech at the World Esperanto Congress in Cambridge in he said, "we hope that earlier or later, maybe after many centuries, on a neutral language foundation, understanding one each other, the nations will build Esperanto's phonology , grammar , vocabulary , and semantics are based on the Indo-European languages spoken in Europe.

The sound inventory is essentially Slavic , as is much of the semantics, whereas the vocabulary derives primarily from the Romance languages , with a lesser contribution from Germanic languages and minor contributions from Slavic languages and Greek.

Pragmatics and other aspects of the language not specified by Zamenhof's original documents were influenced by the native languages of early authors, primarily Russian, Polish, German, and French.

Paul Wexler proposes that Esperanto is relexified Yiddish , which he claims is in turn a relexified Slavic language, [72] though this model is not accepted by mainstream academics.

Esperanto has been described as "a language lexically predominantly Romanic , morphologically intensively agglutinative , and to a certain degree isolating in character".

Adjectives can be freely placed before or after the nouns they modify, though placing them before the noun is more common.

New words are formed through extensive prefixing and suffixing. Esperanto typically has 22 to 24 consonants, depending on the phonemic analysis and individual speaker, five vowels, and two semivowels that combine with the vowels to form six diphthongs.

Tone is not used to distinguish meanings of words. Stress is always on the second-last vowel in fully Esperanto words unless a final vowel o is elided, which occurs mostly in poetry.

For example, familio "family" is [fa. A large number of consonant clusters can occur, up to three in initial position as in stranga , "strange" and five in medial position as in ekssklavo , "former slave".

Final clusters are uncommon except in unassimilated names, poetic elision of final o , and a very few basic words such as cent "hundred" and post "after".

Since there are only five vowels, a good deal of variation in pronunciation is tolerated. These details often depend on the speaker's native language.

A glottal stop may occur between adjacent vowels in some people's speech, especially when the two vowels are the same, as in heroo "hero" [he.

The alphabet does not include the letters q, w, x, or y , which are only used when writing unassimilated terms or proper names. All unaccented letters are pronounced approximately as in the IPA , with the exception of c.

In addition, Esperanto g is always hard, as in g ive , and Esperanto vowels are pronounced as in Spanish.

Even with the widespread adoption of Unicode , the letters with diacritics found in the "Latin-Extended A" section of the Unicode Standard can cause problems with printing and computing, because they are not found on most physical keyboards and are left out of certain fonts.

There are two principal workarounds to this problem, which substitute digraphs for the accented letters. A more recent " x-convention " has gained ground since the advent of computing.

This system replaces each diacritic with an x not part of the Esperanto alphabet after the letter, producing the six digraphs cx, gx, hx, jx, sx, and ux.

There are computer keyboard layouts that support the Esperanto alphabet, and some systems use software that automatically replaces x- or h-convention digraphs with the corresponding diacritic letters for example, Amiketo [80] for Microsoft Windows , Mac OS X , and Linux , Esperanta Klavaro for Windows Phone , [81] and Gboard and AnySoftKeyboard for Android.

Esperanto words are mostly derived by stringing together roots , grammatical endings, and at times prefixes and suffixes. This process is regular so that people can create new words as they speak and be understood.

Compound words are formed with a modifier-first, head-final order, as in English compare "birdsong" and "songbird," and likewise, birdokanto and kantobirdo.

Speakers may optionally insert an o between the words in a compound noun if placing them together directly without the o would make the resulting word hard to say or understand.

The different parts of speech are marked by their own suffixes: all common nouns end in -o , all adjectives in -a , all derived adverbs in -e , and all verbs except the jussive or imperative end in -s , specifically in one of six tense and mood suffixes, such as the present tense -as ; the jussive mood, which is tenseless, ends in -u.

Nouns and adjectives have two cases: nominative for grammatical subjects and in general, and accusative for direct objects and after a preposition to indicate direction of movement.

Adjectives agree with their nouns; their endings are singular subject -a [a]; rhymes with "ha! The suffix -n , besides indicating the direct object, is used to indicate movement and a few other things as well.

The six verb inflections consist of three tenses and three moods. They are present tense -as , future tense -os , past tense -is , infinitive mood -i , conditional mood -us and jussive mood -u used for wishes and commands.

Verbs are not marked for person or number. Thus, kanti means "to sing", mi kantas means "I sing", vi kantas means "you sing", and ili kantas means "they sing".

Word order is comparatively free. Adjectives may precede or follow nouns; subjects, verbs and objects may occur in any order. Similarly, the negative ne "not" and conjunctions such as kaj "and" and ke "that" must precede the phrase or clause that they introduce.

The core vocabulary of Esperanto was defined by Lingvo internacia , published by Zamenhof in This book listed roots; these could be expanded into tens of thousands of words using prefixes, suffixes, and compounding.

In , Zamenhof published the first Esperanto dictionary , Universala Vortaro , which had a larger set of roots.

The rules of the language allowed speakers to borrow new roots as needed; it was recommended, however, that speakers use most international forms and then derive related meanings from these.

Since then, many words have been borrowed, primarily but not solely from the European languages. Not all proposed borrowings become widespread, but many do, especially technical and scientific terms.

Terms for everyday use, on the other hand, are more likely to be derived from existing roots; komputilo "computer", for instance, is formed from the verb komputi "compute" and the suffix -ilo "tool".

Words are also calqued ; that is, words acquire new meanings based on usage in other languages. Esperanto speakers often debate about whether a particular borrowing is justified or whether meaning can be expressed by deriving from or extending the meaning of existing words.

In addition, the suffix -um- has no defined meaning; words using the suffix must be learned separately such as dekstren "to the right" and dekstrumen "clockwise".

There are not many idiomatic or slang words in Esperanto, as these forms of speech tend to make international communication difficult—working against Esperanto's main goal.

Instead of derivations of Esperanto roots, new roots are taken from European languages in the endeavor to create an international language.

The following short extract gives an idea of the character of Esperanto. Below are listed some useful Esperanto words and phrases along with IPA transcriptions:.

The vocabulary , orthography , phonology , and semantics are all thoroughly European. The vocabulary, for example, draws about three-quarters from Romance languages , with the rest split between Greek , English and German.

The syntax has Germanic and Slavic tendencies, with internal tensions when these disagree; the semantics and phonology have been said to be Slavic.

Esperanto is frequently accused of being inherently sexist , because the default form of some nouns is masculine while a derived form is used for the feminine, which is said to retain traces of the male-dominated society of late 19th-century Europe of which Esperanto is a product.

In addition, nouns that denote persons and whose definitions are not explicitly male are often assumed to be male unless explicitly made female, such as doktoro, a PhD doctor male or unspecified versus doktorino, a female PhD.

Esperanto pronouns are similar. Esperanto speakers learn the language through self-directed study , online tutorials, and correspondence courses taught by volunteers.

More recently, free teaching websites like lernu! Esperanto instruction is rarely available at schools, including four primary schools in a pilot project under the supervision of the University of Manchester , and by one count at a few universities.

As of [update] the bill is still under consideration by the Chamber of Deputies. Conversational Esperanto, The International Language , is a free drop-in class that is open to Stanford students and the general public on campus during the academic year.

After taking the Esperanto course at their university and becoming fascinated with the language, two Stanford students embarked on a research project travelling around Europe to document the history and usage of Esperanto.

They visited formal institutions devoted to Esperanto, including the Esperanto Museum in Vienna, and participated in tours conducted in the language and distributed a survey to major Esperanto organizations.

Their research focused on the community of Esperanto speakers with the hope of engaging the Esperanto community and the public at large. Various educators have estimated that Esperanto can be learned in anywhere from one quarter to one twentieth the amount of time required for other languages.

The same neuropsychological law [—called by] Jean Piaget generalizing assimilation —applies to word formation as well as to grammar.

Four primary schools in Britain, with pupils, are currently following a course in " propaedeutic Esperanto"—that is, instruction in Esperanto to raise language awareness and accelerate subsequent learning of foreign languages—under the supervision of the University of Manchester.

As they put it,. This appears to be because learning subsequent foreign languages is easier than learning one's first foreign language, whereas the use of a grammatically simple and culturally flexible auxiliary language like Esperanto lessens the first-language learning hurdle.

In one study, [] a group of European secondary school students studied Esperanto for one year, then French for three years, and ended up with a significantly better command of French than a control group, who studied French for all four years.

Esperanto is by far the most widely spoken constructed language in the world. Countering a common criticism against Esperanto, the statistician Svend Nielsen has found there to be no significant correlation between the number of Esperanto speakers and similarity of a given national mother language to Esperanto.

He concludes that Esperanto tends to be more popular in countries that are rich, with widespread Internet access and that tend to contribute more to science and culture.

Linguistic diversity within a country was found to have a slight inverse correlation with Esperanto popularity. An estimate of the number of Esperanto speakers was made by Sidney S.

Culbert , a retired psychology professor at the University of Washington and a longtime Esperantist, who tracked down and tested Esperanto speakers in sample areas in dozens of countries over a period of twenty years.

Culbert concluded that between one and two million people speak Esperanto at Foreign Service Level 3 , "professionally proficient" able to communicate moderately complex ideas without hesitation, and to follow speeches, radio broadcasts, etc.

Culbert's most detailed account of his methodology is found in a letter to David Wolff. In the Almanac, his estimates for numbers of language speakers were rounded to the nearest million, thus the number for Esperanto speakers is shown as two million.

This latter figure appears in Ethnologue. Assuming that this figure is accurate, that means that about 0. Although it is not Zamenhof's goal of a universal language , it still represents a level of popularity unmatched by any other constructed language.

Marcus Sikosek now Ziko van Dijk has challenged this figure of 1. He estimated that even if Esperanto speakers were evenly distributed, assuming one million Esperanto speakers worldwide would lead one to expect about in the city of Cologne.

Van Dijk finds only 30 fluent speakers in that city, and similarly smaller-than-expected figures in several other places thought to have a larger-than-average concentration of Esperanto speakers.

He also notes that there are a total of about 20, members of the various Esperanto organizations other estimates are higher.

Though there are undoubtedly many Esperanto speakers who are not members of any Esperanto organization, he thinks it unlikely that there are fifty times more speakers than organization members.

Finnish linguist Jouko Lindstedt , an expert on native-born Esperanto speakers, presented the following scheme [] to show the overall proportions of language capabilities within the Esperanto community:.

In , doctoral student Svend Nielsen estimated around 63, Esperanto speakers worldwide, taking into account association memberships, user-generated data from Esperanto websites and census statistics.

This number, however, was disputed by statistician Sten Johansson, who questioned the reliability of the source data and highlighted a wide margin of error, the latter point with which Nielsen agrees.

Both have stated, however, that this new number is likely more realistic than some earlier projections. In the absence of Dr. Culbert's detailed sampling data, or any other census data, it is impossible to state the number of speakers with certainty.

According to the website of the World Esperanto Association :. Native Esperanto speakers, denaskuloj , have learned the language from birth from Esperanto-speaking parents.

Esperantists can access an international culture, including a large body of original as well as translated literature. There are more than 25, Esperanto books, both originals and translations, as well as several regularly distributed Esperanto magazines.

In a museum about Esperanto opened in China. Historically, much Esperanto music , such as Kaj Tiel Plu , has been in various folk traditions.

David Gaines used Esperanto poems as well as an excerpt from a speech by Dr. Zamenhof for his Symphony No.

One Esperanto for mezzo-soprano and orchestra — There are also shared traditions, such as Zamenhof Day , and shared behaviour patterns. Esperantists speak primarily in Esperanto at international Esperanto meetings.

Detractors of Esperanto occasionally criticize it as "having no culture".

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